Stimulants

11/29/2012

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Stimulants are a broad category of substances that act to increase the level of activity of the central nervous system. Stimulants increase alertness, attention, and energy, as well as elevate blood pressure, heart rate, and respiration.

 

The category includes commonly used substances such as caffeine and nicotine, over-the-counter decongestants, (e.g., pseudoephedrines like Sudafed TM), illegal drugs (e.g., cocaine, methamphetamine), and prescription medications.

The most common use of prescription stimulants is to treat individuals diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Prescription stimulants are also prescribed by doctors to treat conditions such as asthma, respiratory problems, obesity, and the treatment of narcolepsy and other sleep disorders.

Examples of Stimulants

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Amphetamines and dextroamphetamine  –  are stimulant drugs whose effects are similar to cocaine.
Methamphetamine is a highly addictive stimulant drug that is part of a larger family of amphetamines.
Methylphenidate is a central nervous system stimulant. It has effects similar to, but stronger than, caffeine and less potent than amphetamines.

Street or Slang Terms for Stimulants
Ritz, rippers, dexies, and bennies are commonly used terms to refer to stimulants.

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Stimulant Abuse by teens

This class of drug is often abused for its ability to produce euphoric effects or to counteract sluggish feelings induced by tranquilizers or alcohol.
In the hands of teens, stimulants are taken to stay awake, increase alertness and concentration, boost energy, and get high. If they are prescribed drugs for ADHD, teens can save up their pills during the week and share them with friends at weekend parties. Teens and university students also report saving and selling their own ADHD drugs around exam time. Sometimes teens go beyond swallowing these pills, they also crush and snort them, or mix pills with alcohol.

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Signs and Symptoms of Stimulant Abuse

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Do you suspect your teen is abusing stimulants? If so, there are a number of symptoms and side effects to look for:

    • Physical side effects – include dilated pupils; decreased appetite; loss of coordination; collapse; increased heart and respiratory rates; elevated blood pressure;dizziness; tremors; headache; flushed skin; chest pain with palpitations; excessive sweating; vomiting; and abdominal cramps.
    • Psychological side effects  – include feelings of restlessness, anxiety, and delusions;hostility and aggression; and panic, suicidal, or homicidal tendencies. Paranoia, often accompanied by auditory and visual hallucinations, may also occur.

If you have observed any of the symptoms or side effects listed above, be mindful of the possibility of withdrawal or overdoses, as well.

Withdrawal from Stimulants
Withdrawal symptoms associated with discontinuing stimulant use may include depression, disturbance of sleep patterns, fatigue, and apathy.
Potentially dangerous Drug and Alcohol Interactions with Stimulants
Stimulant abuse often goes along with the use of other substances like alcohol, other prescription drugs, over-the-counter drugs, and the use of illegal substances like marijuana.

Did you know?

Alcohol: Teens who use alcohol and stimulants together are likely to drink more before feeling the effects of alcohol because of the stimulant effects; The result? When the stimulant effects wear off, the alcohol kicks in.

Prescription drugs:  Stimulants should only be used in combination with other medications under a physician’s careful supervision.

Over-the-counter drugs:  There are dangers associated with mixing stimulants and over the counter drugs that contain decongestants. Blood pressure can become dangerously high or lead to irregular heart rhythms.

Signs of Stimulant overdose
The symptoms of a sublethal stimulant overdose may include dizziness, tremor, irritability, confusion, hostility, hallucinations, panic, headache, skin flushing, chest pain, palpitations, cardiac arrhythmias, hypertension, vomiting, cramps, and excessive sweating.
Overdose or death is preceded by high fever, convulsions, and heart failure.
Since death in these cases is partially due to strain on the heart, physical exercise increases the risks of stimulant use.

If you see your teen or anyone else in this state, call 911 immediately.

DFK offers links to resources in your region to help you and your family find the right kind of help for sedative or depressant dependency or addiction.

 

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Sedatives/Central Nervous System (CNS) Depressants

11/29/2012

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Prescription sedatives are central nervous system (CNS)depressants, meaning that they depress or slow down the body’s functions.

These medications are mainly used to relieve anxiety and assist with sleep problems. Other medical uses include inducing sedation for surgical and other medical procedures, treatment of alcohol withdrawal, seizure control and relaxation of skeletal muscles.

Often referred to as sedatives and tranquilizers, CNS depressants are substances that can slow normal brain function. Most CNS depressants reduce brain function through a neurotransmitter called gammaaminobutyric acid (GABA), a chemical that enables communication between brain cells.

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Prescription sedatives and CNS depressants are usually taken in pill form; however, some are available as suppositories or prepared as a solution for injection.

Sedatives are often prescribed by doctors to treat a variety of health conditions including anxiety and panic attacks, tension, acute stress reactions and sleep disorders. When given in high doses, sedatives may act as anesthesia. Sedatives have the potential for abuse and should be used only as prescribed.

Examples of Depressants

There are three different classes of sedatives: benzodiazepines, non-benzodiazepine sleep medications and barbiturates.

Barbiturates are a type of depressant often prescribed to promote sleep.

Benzodiazepines are a type of depressant prescribed to relieve anxiety.

Some of the most well known sedatives and CNS depressants are listed below with the names you might find on a prescription label.

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  • Estazolam (ProSom)
  • Zolpidem (Ambien)
  • Zaleplon (Sonata)
  • Eszopiclone (Lunesta)
  • Mephobarbital (Mebaral)
  • Sodium pentobarbital (Nembutal)
  • Secobarbital (Seconal)
  • Chlordiazepoxide (Librium)
  • Chlorazepate (Tranxene)
  • Meprobamate (Miltown)
  • Chloral hydrate (Noctec)
  • Ethchlorvynol (Placidyl)
  • Methaqualone (Quaalude)
  • Oxazepam (Serax)
Street or Slang Terms for Sedatives

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Benzos, xanies, xani-bars, xani-bombs, and roofies are commonly used terms to refer to sedatives.

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Abuse of Sedatives

While different sedatives work in unique ways, they produce a drowsy or calming effect that can help those suffering from anxiety or sleep disorders. Because they can produce a state of intoxication, they have a high potential for abuse.

Some people tamper with the medication to misuse it for the drug’s euphoric effects. Tampering involves changing the form of the medication or the route by which it is taken or both.

Are Teens Abusing Sedatives?

Depressants such as sedatives and tranquilizers have been growing in popularity among teens. In 2007, six percent of U.S. high school seniors reported abusing depressants including Valium and Xanax, compared to four percent in 1995.

Signs and Symptoms of Sedative Abuse

Sedatives and CNS Depressants have the potential for abuse and should be used only as prescribed.

Be on the lookout for these side effects:

  • Physical side effects: include dilated pupils and slurred speech; relaxed muscles; intoxication; loss of motor coordination; fatigue, respiratory depression; sensory alteration; and lowered blood pressure. Teens taking barbiturates may exhibit side effects such as slurred speech, dizziness, sedation, drowsiness, and fever.
  • Psychological side effects: include poor concentration or feelings of confusion; impaired judgment; and lowered inhibitions. Teens on barbiturates may experience depression, fatigue, confusion, and irritability.

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If you have observed any of the symptoms or side effects listed above, contact a medical professional immediately.

Withdrawal from Sedatives

Because all CNS depressants work by slowing the brain’s activity, when someone stops taking them, the brain’s activity can rebound and race out of control, possibly leading to seizures and other serious consequences.

Withdrawal symptoms: include anxiety, insomnia, muscle tremors, and loss of appetite. Going “cold-turkey” off of some depressants can have life-threatening complications, cause convulsions, delirium, and in rare instances, death.

If you have observed any of the symptoms or side effects listed above, contact a medical professional immediately.

Potentially dangerous Drug and Alcohol interactions with Sedatives

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Sedative abuse is often combined with the use of other drugs like alcohol, other prescription drugs, over-the-counter drugs, and street drugs like marijuana.

Did you know?

Combining these substances can be highly dangerous:

    • Alcohol – Using sedatives with alcohol can slow both the heart and breathing and may lead to death. When combined with alcohol, the effects and risks of depressants are seriously increased.
    • Prescription drugs – Some interactions with other drugs can be risky. Sedatives should be used in combination with other medications only under a physician’s close supervision.
    • Over-the-counter drugs –  Sedatives should not be combined with any other medication or substance that causes central nervous system depression, including some over-the-counter cold and allergy medications. Doing so may slow the heart and breathing, a serious health risk.
Signs of Sedative overdose
Symptoms including shallow breathing, clammy skin, dilated pupils, weak and rapid pulse, coma, or death.

If you see your teen or anyone else in this state, call 911 immediately.

DFK offers links to resources in your area to help you and your family find the right kind of help for sedative dependency or addiction.

 

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Opioids/ Painkillers

11/29/2012

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Opioid drugs act by effectively changing the way a person experiences pain.

Commonly referred to as painkillers, Opioids are drugs that contain opium or are derived from and imitate opium. They are prescribed for pain relief and are only available by prescription.

Most opioid or painkilling drug prescriptions are non-refillable and, when used properly under a medical doctor’s supervision, are safe and effective.

Morphine derivatives, or narcotics, come from opioids and are used to therapeutically treat pain, suppress coughing, alleviate diarrhea, and induce anesthesia. When using these narcotics, abusers experience a general sense of well-being by reduced tension, anxiety, and aggression.

Although painkillers have different potencies and are taken in different ways, when they are abused they all pose a risk for addiction and other serious effects.

 

Examples of Opioid Painkillers

Some of the most well known painkillers are listed below with the names you might find on a prescription label.

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  • Codeine: like morphine, this is found in opium, is weaker in action than morphine, and is used especially as a painkiller.
  • Fentanyl (and fentanyl analogs): a man-made opioid painkiller similar to morphine that is administered as a skin patch or orally.
  • Morphine: the powerful, active ingredient of opium is used as a painkiller and sedative.
  • Opium: from the opium poppy, formerly used in medicine to soothe pain but is now often replaced by derivative alkaloids (as morphine or codeine) or man-made substitutes (opioids).
  • Hydrocodone: often combined with acetaminophen for use as a painkiller. Vicodin (which is not available in Canada, but can be found in the USA) is an example.
  • Oxycodone: a narcotic painkiller, for example Percocet and Percodan.
Street or Slang Terms for Painkillers

Oxies, OC, oxycotton, 80s, percs, vikes, and vikings are commonly used slang terms to refer to painkillers.

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Opioid painkillers are the prescription drugs most commonly abused by teens

According to the 2017 CAMH OSDUHS study, one in ten high school students (Grade 7 – 12) reported using a prescription opioid pain reliever at least once during the past 12 months. In Ontario alone that represents 95,000 students.

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In Canada as a whole, it’s estimated that approximately 375,000 Canadian students have taken prescription drugs not prescribed to them.

(DFK estimate)

How Do Teens Abuse Painkillers?

There are several ways painkillers can be taken. Most teens report swallowing pills, but they can also be crushed and snorted for an intensified effect.

Signs and Symptoms of Painkiller Abuse

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Short-term effects
Painkillers can cause drowsiness, inability to concentrate, apathy, lack of energy, constriction of the pupils, flushing of the face and neck, constipation, nausea, vomiting, and most significantly, respiratory depression.

Long-term effects
If a teen abuses painkillers for a period of time, he can become addicted to the drug and experience withdrawal symptoms when he stops taking the drug. Associated with addiction is tolerance, which means more and more of the drug or a combination of drugs is needed to produce the same high or euphoric feeling, possibly, leading to overdose.

Withdrawal
Due to the physical dependence produced by chronic use of opioid painkillers, teens who are prescribed opioid medications need to be monitored not just when they are appropriately taking the medicine, but also when they stop using the drug to reduce or avoid withdrawal symptoms. Symptoms of withdrawal can include restlessness, muscle and bone pain, insomnia, diarrhea, vomiting, cold flashes, and involuntary leg movements.

Potentially dangerous Drug Interactions
Painkillers should never be used with alcohol, antihistamines, barbiturates, or benzodiazepines.
Since these substances slow breathing, their combined effects could lead to life-threatening respiratory depression.

If you or your teen is already taking a prescribed painkiller, always consult with your physician before taking any other medicine.

Signs of Opioid Overdose

Physical signs of painkiller overdose include pinpoint pupils, cold and clammy skin, confusion, convulsions, severe drowsiness, and slow or troubled breathing.

If you see your teen or anyone else in this state, call 911 immediately.

DFK offers links to resources in your region to help you and your family find the right kind of help for opioid or painkiller dependency or addiction.

Fentanyl

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Fentanyl is a highly potent prescription painkiller that is linked to an increasing number of deaths in this country.

Many of these overdoses are linked to pharmaceutical-grade fentanyl that is diverted onto the streets and consumed unknowingly by those with addictions and recreational users alike.  However, illicit fentanyl produced in clandestine labs is also responsible for causing overdose deaths. 

Click here for more on illicit fentanyl

Fentanyl is 40 times more powerful than Heroin and 50 to 100 times potent than morphine

Fentanyl is an extremely powerful synthetic opiate analgesic similar to but more potent than morphine. It is typically used to treat patients with severe pain, or to manage pain after surgery. It is also sometimes used to treat people with chronic pain who are physically tolerant to opiates.

When prescribed by a physician, Fentanyl is often administered via injection, transdermal patch, or in lozenge form.

In its prescription form, Fentanyl is known as Actiq, Duragesic, and Sublimaze.

Like heroin, morphine, and other opioid drugs, Fentanyl works by binding to the body’s opiate receptors, highly concentrated in areas of the brain that control pain and emotions. When opiate drugs bind to these receptors, they can drive up dopamine levels in the brain’s reward areas, producing a state of euphoria and relaxation.

Deaths involving Fentanyl

The number of deaths involving Fentanyl has risen in Canada. Between 2009 and 2014,there were at least 655 deaths in Canada where fentanyl was determined to be a cause or a contributing cause. This represents an average of one death every three days over this time period.

Source: Canadian Centre on Substance Abuse (CCSA)

Download the entire CCSA Report “Deaths involving Fentanyl in Canada 2009- 2014

 

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Fentanyl on the Street

Street names for the drug include Apache, China girl, China white, dance fever, friend, goodfella, jackpot, murder 8, TNT, as well as Tango and Cash.

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Mixing fentanyl with street-sold heroin or cocaine markedly amplifies the drugs’ potency and potential dangers. 

Signs of Fentanyl overdose

Physical signs of fentanyl overdose include: Drowsiness/respiratory depression, respiratory arrest, nausea, confusion, constipation, sedation, unconsciousness, coma and death.
Medications called opiate receptor antagonists act by blocking the effects of opiate drugs. Naloxone is one such antagonist.

Overdoses of fentanyl should be treated immediately with an opiate antagonist.

If you see your teen or anyone else in this state, call 911 immediately.

DFK offers links to resources in your region to help you and your family find the right kind of help for fentanyl abuse.

 

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